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Tire Technology

Manufacturing Processes

Bead Winding

This the process that forms the bead. After the bead wire is coated with rubber, it’s wrapped around a fixture, forming the circle-shaped bead used in constructing the bead assembly.


Calendering is a process in tire manufacturing where steel or fabric is coated with rubber. Steel belts, body plies, cap plies, and belt edge covers are all produced using the calendering process. It works by pulling steel or fabric between two large rubber-coated rollers that press into the top and bottom of the material. As it moves through the rollers, the pressure forces the rubber to permeate and adhere to the steel or fabric.


Extrusion is a process used to manufacture shaped solid rubber components used to build tires. Treads, sidewalls, and bead fillers are manufactured using extruders. Rubber is pressed into a chamber which heats the rubber and forces it through a die to produce the desired shape.

Internal Mixer

The internal mixer is a large, multistory, enclosed machine used to mix oil, rubber, and chemicals into all the rubber compounds used in manufacturing tires. After mixing under pressure, the rubber is formed into thick sheets which can be further processed in calendaring and extrusion.

Green Tire

A combination of cut calendered and extruded materials and bead wraps that are assembled into a single component at a tire building machine.


The process that forms the green tire into the desired shape and size under heat and pressure. Curing bonds all the different rubber components of a tire together, and also molds the tread design and sidewall nomenclature into the tire.

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